The right drills for wood, steel or concrete

The right drills for wood, steel or concrete

Drilling is one of the major home improvement work and the drilling of the first electric tools that should be in every workshop. Crucial for good drilling results, however, the use of the correct drill bit is in the first place. Although However, metal drills can be used for many materials, they also have their limitations. Latest when concealed hinges to be installed, the use of Forstner drills is essential.

However, many drill differ not only in their design. Different stem forms and special alloys decide on the correct use.

We would like to introduce our drills overview different Borhrerarten and explain what they are used. Often, not all forms of all sizes must be present and it can be located resorted with other drills. However, a solid basic equipment should be in every workshop.

Contents: The right drill bit for wood, steel or concrete

  • Safety during drilling
  • What materials can be drilled?
  • Drills for woodworking
  • The wood bit for various applications
  • Forstnerboher for large holes in wood
  • Spade, if it is to go fast
  • Auger bits for deep holes in wood
  • Metal drill for precise holes in hard materials
  • Tips for drilling metal and steel
  • Stone drill with carbide tipping
  • Universal drill for universal application?

Safety during drilling

safety goggles

When drilling material is removed in the form of fine chips, long flow chips or dust. The use of safety goggles is therefore always recommended.

ear protection

Depending on the material and drill diameter drilling work at a high speed, which entails a corresponding noise by itself. Especially when impact drilling, the impact function leads to an additional load. Therefore, if necessary, a hearing protection should be worn.

Protective gloves

Rotary tools can detect substances and therefore gloves and wrap. Therefore, a general ban on work gloves applies to all rotating machine tools. This is true for working with hand drills, just as For upright and upright drills.

What materials can be drilled?

all materials can basically drill that are firm enough to be cut to. This applies to hard glass as well as soft butter or even paper. The decisive factor is the use of a suitable drill. This must be adapted to the material to be processed and have the correct cutting.

A comprehensive drill set should be in every workshopA comprehensive drill set should be in every workshop

Distinguish the drilling operation can already be in the form of material removal. While with soft materials chips "isolated" be, must be scraped with harder or even shattered. For this, the shape and material of the cutting edge is critical.

For home use, especially the following materials are of interest, are required for the different drills:

  • Metal - solid material, sheet
  • Wood - small, large and very deep holes
  • bricks
  • concrete
  • Glass and tiles

Therefore, the featured drills are to be limited to these materials. Already there are many differences that can lead to different drilling.

Drills for woodworking

Wood is the material, which is drilled in the home workshop most common. As diverse as wood can be used, and so different requirements for drilling holes in wood may be, as different are the shapes of the wood bit shown.

The wood bit for various applications

Wood drills for various applicationsWood drills for various applications

In principle, Wood be drilled with conventional twist drills (metal drill). However, the soft material timber has the disadvantage that it wegdrück during cutting, and therefore can not be cut accurately. Clearly that is visible at the drill bit to emerge at the rear of the board. Here the material is not cut, but instead pushed the wood fibers, resulting in spalling.

Wood bit must therefore have cutting edges that do not push the material outwards. Clearly, the implementation can be seen on the bevel. This has a centering, guiding the drill bit and two outer cutters which cut very flat and sharp. These two cutting edges may be inclined so that they penetrate the wood only at the outer diameter and there separate clean even slightly inwardly. The balance results in a thin wooden disc having a hole for centering.

by "gouged" Slice it should be avoided to drill several layers of boards simultaneously with a wood drill. The disk remains on the drill adhere, rotates with the drill so that the next layer of wood can be cut prevented. Only a strong print creates enough friction, under which the wheel no longer rotates and can be cut from the drill.

Forstnerboher for large holes in wood

Similarly, as the simple wooden drill, and the Forstner bit is ground. it also has a centering and lateral cutting edges, which are lower than the outside inwards. In addition, outer blades can be marked, the gouge the drill diameter even cleaner and give the drill more guide in the wellbore.

Forstnerboher for large holes in woodForstnerboher for large holes in wood

Since a Forstner bit is mainly for large diameter drill head can not be executed in the same diameter as the shaft. The inventor Benjamin Forstner has therefore sold its drill and makes the shaft significantly thinner than the drill head. 

This design makes it possible to produce large holes, and yet accommodate the drill in standard drill chuck. At the same time, however, not possible to guide the chips by means of a long spiral from the wellbore. Forstner bits can therefore only be used for relatively short blind or through-holes. collect too many chips in the borehole, the resulting heat can not be dissipated and the drill glows from.

Although large Forstner bits can be clamped into small drills, must not be forgotten that they need a certain torque. Otherwise than with a hole saw, Forstner bits require cutting, as large as the bore hole is. The cutting access over their entire size simultaneously in the material and take off large chips.

Spade, if it is to go fast

Spade, if it is to go fastSpade, if it is to go fast

As the name suggests, the Spade combined drilling with the milling. Like all wood drill bit, it has a center point, which allows relatively precise placement on wood. Two lateral cutting then scrape off the surface and thus mill in the wood. Scraping or milling requires significantly more effort than it need common wood drill because the cutter is more upright and does not run in rotation. This Spade bits are primarily meant for softwoods. However, used correctly they achieve a very fast work progress at a sufficient torque. For better power transmission, they have a hexagonal shaft instead of a round shaft.

The shallow drill form reduces friction on the drilling diameter and leaves plenty of space for chips, but can be removed without spiral shape barely. The low strength of the drill also offers little guidance in the drill hole so that holes are rarely accurate. The Spade is intended for quick holes with powerful machines.

Auger bits for deep holes in wood

Auger bits for deep holes in woodAuger bits for deep holes in wood

Typical twist drill made of a round shaft, are incorporated in the two spiral grooves in order to transport the chips. Not so with the auger.

The auger has a less flute, with him the drill winds around the diameter, whence its name comes from. So there is only a flute, which is significantly higher, however, and also transports large chips well from deep wells. So that the auger is very suitable for extremely deep wells.

Like all wood drill, the auger has a center point. What other wood drills but mostly "Additional equipment" is, is at an auger Standard - a centering threaded. This thread, similar to a wood screw, allows the centering and pulls the drill safely into the wood.

Metal drill for precise holes in hard materials

to drill in steel with easy steel is hardly possible. Therefore, metal drills consist mainly of HSS - HSS drills. HSS stands for High Speed ​​Steel or registered German high-speed steel. The base material is different in quality, but especially in manufacturing and drill the alloy.

The spiral shape of the drill can be prepared by rolling, creating a particularly firm and smooth surface or by grinding in a very precise tolerances. Recognized the difference in the designation HSS-R ground for the scrolling and HSS-G. In addition, the wear resistance of coatings and alloys can be positively influenced.

The right drills for wood, steel or concreteMetal drill bits HSS-Co for special requirements

  • HSS - called simple HSS drill for medium load. Recognizable are HSS drills on their gray to black color.
  • HSS-TiN - an additional vapor deposited titanium nitride coating having improved surface hardness and reduced wear. In a polished section but the coating is lost.
  • HSS-Co - the alloy with cobalt improves the properties of HSS, increases the temperature resistance and minimizes wear. In an alloy of the drill is not only coated, but total affected. Subsequent sanding therefore does not affect the properties. The color is darker than HSS-TiN and mostly dull.
  • HSS Co TiN - denotes a cobalt alloy with an additional titanium nitride coating.

Carbide drills

Carbide is not comparable to HSS. It is produced by pressing (sintering) of various raw materials, creating an extremely hard, wear-resistant and especially heat-resistant material. The special hardness makes carbide drill but also brittle, so that they can find more in high-quality CNC machines their use. 

be distinguished Carbide drill (With a cap made of hard metal and VollhartematallbohrerVHM), Which are made entirely of hard metal.

Tips for drilling metal and steel

Tips for drilling metal and steel

Steel and many metals are very resistant materials. Therefore, they require not only special drills, but also a certain amount of basic knowledge for drilling of metals. We show what to look for and how to get in steel for perfect drilling result. Tips for drilling metal and steel

Stone drill with carbide tipping

Carbide allows it to literally rock-hard materials to drill. The designation "drill" is not quite right. When drilling in bricks and stones, the material is crushed and less bored. The typical twist drill form is for the removal of material removed.

Keyless chuck and SDS-Plus chuckKeyless chuck and SDS-Plus chuckStone drills with cylindrical, SDS-Quick and the SDS-plus shankStone drills with cylindrical, SDS-Quick and the SDS-plus shank

Wood and metal drill cut into the material and carry it off. Masonry drill bit hit the surface and crumble them. The rotational movement is used for the formation of the wellbore and removal of drilling dust. The soldered carbide tip allows for drilling in brick, stone or ceramic. However, only a different shaft design allows better transmission of the impact energy and thus the drilling different solid materials. 

Masonry drills with cylindrical shank

The cylindrical shank allows clamp the masonry bit into each tooth crown or chuck and drill without impact function as necessary for tiles. With a flip function bricks, porous concrete and lightweight concrete can be drilled. The impact energy of an impact drill is limited and also commercial chuck is not designed for a higher power.

Stone drill with SDS-shaft

The limited transmission of the impact energy is significantly improved by an SDS-lining. This does not tighten the SDS masonry drill bit, but keeps it in a guide and allows the movement in the impact direction. Thus, the SDS-food must not record or transmit the impact energy. This allows the transmission of very high impact strengths.

However, the SDS lining, incidentally, was invented by Bosch, is now consistently used by almost all manufacturers, is different in size:

  • SDS-Plus or shortly SDS is the feed size which is used in all home improvement tools. Herewith are holes of from 4 to about 20 mm.
  • SDS-Max is used to transfer the greatest forces and is therefore used in heavy rotary hammers.
  • SDS-Quick is the smallest SDS lining and is currently used only in Bosch cordless Bohhämmern. The SDS-Quick feed also allows recording of bits with long hexagonal shaft.

Universal drill for universal application?

Universal drills are capable of drilling wood and stoneUniversal drills are capable of drilling wood and stone

Carbide can crumble stone and concrete and can be ground to very sharp cutting edges for metal drill. A combination of both is to make it possible to drill with a drill wood, plastic and stone.

With a surface carbide tips the drill is hard enough to drill stone. With a sharp bevel he has also ablate able chips of wood and other soft materials. However, pointed and sharp cutting edges are very sensitive to shocks and harder materials dull blades do not allow removal of chips. The combination of both, that may be a good solution only partially. 

Since masonry drill hardly need a special blade shape, universal drills can be used as a rock drill. However, for soft materials, such as wood or plastic, they are less suitable. Press here and squeeze them more bad than good through the material. Therefore, universal drills or multi-purpose drills no special quality of the holes should be expected in soft materials.

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